The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) entered into force in december 29, 1993 and has 196 Parties including the European Union.
The Convention has 3 main objectives :
- The conservation of biological diversity
- The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity
- The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources
Three protocols to the CBD were then adopted :
- The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
- The Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Protocol
- The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization
The overarching implementation framework is the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 adopted at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 10) held in October 2010, in Nagoya, Japan.
Road to Kunming-Montreal
COP 15 was held in two phases: the first in Kunming, China from October 11 to 15, 2021 in a hybrid format and the second in Montreal, Canada from November 7 to 19, 2022.
Key steps on the road to Kunming-Montreal:
- 3 May - 13 June 2021: The Subsidiary Bodies of the Convention on Scientific Technical and Technological Advice SBSTTA) and on Implementation (SBI) met virtually to address aspects of the post-2020 framework relevant to their mandates. It was the Part I of SBSTTA24 and SBI3.
- 11-15 October 2021: The first part of COP15 was held in Kunming - China in a hybrid format. The conference was an opportunity to launch a new call for mobilization and to reaffirm the priorities of stakeholders. During this week, the States adopted the "Kunming Declaration", a consensus text that recalls the need for profound transformations to put biodiversity on the road to recovery by 2030 and lists 17 commitments to achieve this. While it does not contain any numerical targets, the declaration takes note of the call by many states to achieve 30% of land and sea under protection by 2030.
- 14 - 29 March 2022: Part II of the SBSTTA 24 and SBI 3 held in Geneva.
The SBSTTA prepared a total of ten recommendations including a recommendation on the proposed monitoring framework for the post-2020 GBF and 9 other recommendations to the Conference of the Parties adressing for example soil biodiversity; biodiversity and health; invasive alien species; the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biodiversity; or ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.
The third meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Implementation allowed the SBI to prepare a total of 19 recommendations addressing, among other things, the review of implementation of the Convention and of the Cartagena Protocol, mechanisms to support implementation, and various other policy issues.
The third meeting of the Open-ended Working Group on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (WG2020-3) took place at the International Conference Center Geneva in Geneva, Switzerland. The work of the Working Group was based on the results of the 5th Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2020 and showing that none of the Aichi targets had been fully met.
- 21 - 26 June 2022: Fourth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, took place in Nairobi, Kenya.
- 3-5 December 2022: Fifth meeting of the Open-ended Working Group on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, took place in Montreal, Canada
- 7-19 December 2022: The second part of COP15 took place in Montreal.
A the end of the Conference, the Kunming-Montreal Agreeement was adopted by 196 States to establish a new "Global Biodiversity Framework" (GBF) with 4 objectives:
- The reduction of threats to biodiversity;
- The sustainable use and management of biodiversity;
- The equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources;
- The means of implementation of the global framework.
The GBF also features 23 targets to achieve by 2030, including:
- Restoration of 30 per cent of terrestrial and marine ecosystems (target 2);
- Effective conservation and management of at least 30 per cent of the world’s land, coastal areas and oceans (target 3);
- Ensuring urgent management actions to halt human induced extinction of known threatened species and for the recovery and conservation of species (target 4);
- Reducing the rates of introduction and establishment of other known or potential invasive alien species by at least 50 per cent (target 6);
- Minimize the impact of climate change and ocean acidification on biodiversity and increase its resilience through mitigation, adaptation, and disaster risk reduction actions, including through nature-based solution and/or ecosystem-based approaches (target 8);
- Substantially and progressively increase the level of financial resources from all sources to implement national biodiversity strategies and action plans, by 2030 mobilizing at least 200 billion United States dollars per year (target 19).