European Union has also adopted a 2020 strategy for biodiversity. These objectives constitute the roadmap of the European Commission in the field of biodiversity. In its mid-term report in 2015, the Commission noted that no significant development had been achieved in the conservation of habitats, flora and fauna.
The Birds and the Habitats directives
In addition to this strategy, the European Union has worked to put in place two directives which directly concern biodiversity: the birds directive (1979, modified in 2009) which has as its object "the protection, management and regulation" of species of birds naturally living in the wild in the European territory of the Member States "and the Habitats Directive (1992), which introduces measures to preserve listed species, such as the prohibition of their trade, their gathering, their capture or the deterioration of their environment (articles 12 and 13) for example.
The Natura 2000 network
It is within the framework of these two directives that the Natura 2000 network was created, which is a network of protected areas and areas which covers all European countries. For example, in France, 12.9% of the national territory is covered by the Natura 2000 network. This network is a tool which aims to structure a real cross-border biodiversity conservation policy by harmonizing the rules and delimiting spaces reserved for nature.
Financing and biodiversity monitoring tools
In addition to this public policy instrument, the European Union has acquired a funding tool, the LIFE program, which in 2019 had a budget of 3.5 billion euros. In addition, European Union services are specifically dedicated to monitoring the state of biodiversity. You can find out more by logging into the European CHM by following this link.